The Gap of Lifespan between Men and Women
(1) People are living longer than ever, but for some reason, women are living
longer than men. A baby boy born in the United States in 2003 can expects to
live to be about 73, a baby girl,about 79. this is indeed a wide gap, and no one
really knows why it exists. The greater longevity (長壽) of women, however, has
been known for centuries. It was, for example,described in the seventeenth
century. However, the difference was smaller then--the gap is growing.
(2) A number of reasons have been proposed to explain the differences. The
gap is greatest in industrialized (個體的) societies, so it has been suggested that
women are less susceptible to work stress that may raise the risk of heart
disease and alcoholism (酗酒). Sociologists also tell us that women are encouraged
to be less adventurous than men (and this may be why they are more careful
drivers, involved in fewer accidents).
(3) Even smoking has been implicated in the age discrepancy (差異). It was once
suggested that working women are more likely to smoke and as more women entered
the work force, the age gap would begin to close, because smoking is related to
earlier deaths. Now, however, we see more women smoking and they still tend to
live longer although their lung cancer rate is climbing sharply.
(4) Some researchers have suggested that men may die early because their
health is more strongly related to their emotions. For example, men tend to die
sooner after losing a spouse than women do. Men even seem to be more weakened by
loss of a job. (Both of these are linked with a marked decrease in the
effectiveness of the immune system.) Among men, death follows retirement with an
alarming (令人擔憂的) promptness (迅速).
(5) Perhaps we are searching for the answers too close to the surface of the
problem. Perhaps the answers lie deeper in our biological heritage. After all,
the phenomenon is not isolated to humans. Females have the edge among virtually
( 幾乎 ) all mammalian (哺乳動物的) species, in that they generally live longer.
Furthermore, in many of these species the differences beginat the moment of
conception; there are more male miscarriages ( 流產 ). In human, after birth, more
baby boys than baby girls die.
23. paragraph 1 __________
24. paragraph 2 __________
25. paragraph 3 __________
26. paragraph 4 __________
A. Much Male Miscarriages
B. The Reason for the Gap Grows Different
C. The Greater Longevity of Women.
D. Health Is More Strongly Related to Their Emotion,,
E. Women Are Living Longer than Men
F. Example for the Age Discrepancy
27. Ababy boy live to be about 73, a baby girl, about 79, this has
28. Women are less likely to work stress that may raise the risk of
29. More women smoking and they still have __________
30. The phenomenon is not isolated to humans __________
A. has impact on
B. a wide gap
C. a longer life
D. animal species
E. different societies
F. heart disease and alcoholism